THE EVOLUTIONARY SUITE BIDDING SYSTEM. . . . JAN 2022
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0. TABLE OF CONTENTS:

     A. INTRODUCTION

     B. BEGINNERS

     C-1. THE BIDDING SYSTEM - OPENING

     C-2. THE BIDDING SYSTEM - RESPONDING

         C-2a RESPONDING TO 1C

         C-2b RESPONDING TO 1D

         C-2c RESPONDING TO A MAJOR

         C-2d RESPONDER REBIDS

         C-2e RESPONDING TO NO TRUMP

         C-2f RESPONDING TO 2C

         C-2g RESPONDING TO 2D

     C-3. THE BIDDING SYSTEM - CONTENTION BIDDING

     C-4. UNIVERSAL COUNTER MEASURES

     C-5. ACE ASKING

     C-6. USELESS

A. INTRODUCTION:

     This is the culmination of years of work in sorting out the best bridge bidding conventions,
     while at the same time creating new or modifying old conventions. Many existing bidding
     conventions are good & provide good information without jeopardizing the entire system.
     Others are good up to a point, but then fail to take advantage of more efficient bidding.
     These are the ones that need modification.
     And then there are those which take up too much bidding room or have the wrong goal in mind.
     Finally, there are areas in the bidding for which there is no desirable existing convention.
     With so many conventions and with so many head-strong partners, it has been very difficult
     to piece these conventions together in a non-conflicting, meaningful manner and test them.
     Nevertheless, I have been able to do so under live playing conditions.

     In this edition I have updated the bidding sequences taking into consideration the seating
     positions relative to the opening bid, as do the 2-OVER-1 (2/1) 3rd & 4th SEAT RESPONSES.
     Regarding 2/1, it is only practically applicable to major suit openings. As a response to a 1D
     opening it is useless and interferes with INVERTED MINOR RAISES. I see very little need for 2/1
     & discourage the 1NT response of 6-12 points forcing. The only use I ever found for it was in
     conjunction with playing Roman Key Card. Yet I have included it where deemed appropriate.
     Meanwhile, I continue to strongly advocate the use of BERGEN RAISES & INVERTED MINOR
     RAISES, in conjunction with 2NT LEBENSOHL WEAK JUMP SHIFTS. In addition, I continue to
     press the solutions I have for the 1C and 2C opening, eliminating the free-for-all bidding
     that occurs when 2C is opened.

     I believe the reader will eventually see how the pieces fit together like a jig saw puzzle
     in a most efficient manner & the consistency in logic in how this suite is constructed.
     To those who do adapt to it, I say "HAPPY BIDDING".



B. FOR BEGINNERS: NOMENCLATURE, DEFINITIONS & GENERAL BIDDING PRACTICES.

     1. NOMENCLATURE:

         a. HAND DISTRIBUTION is represented as (s,h,d,c).

         b. CONVENTION NAMES & BIDS will be capitalized.

         c. The term "FORCING" means it to be forcing one round.
             "NSF" means "NEW SUIT FORCING".
             "NF" means "NOT FORCING"
             Otherwise, "GAME FORCING" or "GF" will be used.

         d. Bidding sequences are represented such as 1S/1C means 1 spade was
             bid over 1C. Another way is 1S-> p-> 2D, meaning 2D/pass/1S or 2D//1S.


     2. DEFINITIONS:
         We assume the reader is familiar with some basic bridge terms.
         The beginner should review the other links herein that completely describe the game.
         For the non-beginner, you may think you have it all down pat, but I have gone
         to great lengths to be very specific and identify some otherwise very subtle points.
         For example, too many include only 3-card support in their definition of a
         LIMIT RAISE which is lazy and misleading. And too many people rely upon 2/1
         almost to the exclusion of all else, a complete fallacy. And too many people
         think they are an opener when they are really contesting the opening.

         a. The "OPENER" is the 1st player to bid, & his partner
             automatically becomes the "RESPONDER".

         b. The "OVERCALLER" or "CONTESTANT" is the 1st opener opponent to not
             "pass". His partner automatically becomes the "ADVANCER" or "SPOILER".

         c. "SEATING POSITIONS" are numbered 1-4 relative to the DEALER.

         d. A "TRICK" is the collection of 4 cards played in rotation
             by each player. There are 13 ticks in a deck of 52 cards.

         e. A "CONTRACT" is the bet made by a partnership that they can
             take a specified number of tricks in playing the hand.

         f. A "BIDDING CALL" is a condition stated by a player during the bidding stage.

             "PASS" is not a bid. It is a No-Bid.

             A "BID" is a call made by a player who intends to win the contract specification
             & make it. The specification is expressed as a combination of bid-level & suit.
             Example: 3H says "I intend to take 3(+6) or 9 tricks with hearts as trump.

             A "DOUBLE" is a call made by the opponent of the last bidder with the intention of
             defeating the contract. The bidder says "I can make it". The Doubler says "No way".
             It should be noted that the "DOUBLE" at low levels is used to convey information
             to the "DOUBLER'S" partner with no intention of leaving the double in. When
             used in this manner, it is "FORCING" upon partner to bid should opponent "pass".

             A "TAKEOUT DOUBLE" is a contester's bid.

             A "NEGATIVE DOUBLE" is a responder's bid.

             A "RESPONSIVE DOUBLE" is an advancer's (or spoiler's) bid.

             A "SUPPORT DOUBLE" is an opener's bid.

             A "REDOUBLE" is made in countering a Double & can take on similar meaning.

             A "SIMPLE BID" is a bid that does not skip over the same bid available at a lower level.

             A "JUMP BID" is one that skips over the same bid available at a lower level.

             A "PREEMPTIVE BID" is an immediate jump bid where the bidder has a long suit,
             but very few points. It is intended to disrupt the opponents' bidding.

             A "TEMPORIZING BID" is responder making a low level forcing bid to hear
                  opener's 2nd bid before deciding on his own 2nd bid (ie, rebid). Examples
                  of "temporizing bids" are 1NT FORCING playing 2/1, 2C/1C & 2D/1D playing
                  INVERTED MINORS, & 2C/1D NEW SUIT FORCING.

             A "DELAYED BID" is when responder makes a "TEMPORIZING BID" & then makes
             his real rebid.

             A "REBID" is either a player's 2nd bid after making his first bid,
             or more specifically a "REPEAT BID" of his previous suit or no-trump.

         g. A "CONTROL" is an ace or a king. (aka. FEATURE, STOPPER, etc)

             A "QUICK TRICK" (abbrev-QT) = one ACE or KQ in a suit.
             It is almost guaranteed to take 1 trick. A King by itself is 1/2 a quick trick.

         h. A "FIT" is where a partnership has a combined holding of at least 8 cards in a suit.

         i. "MARGINAL SUPPORT" for partner's suit only assures a 7-card trump suit.

         j. "ADEQUATE SUPPORT" for partner's suit demands that it assures an 8-card trump suit.

             To an opening bid that promises a 5+ card suit, 3-card support is nominal.

             To an opening bid that promises a 4+ card suit, 4-card support is nominal or adequate.

             To an opening bid that promises as few as 1 card in the suit, 7-card support is nominal.

         k. "SUPERIOR SUPPORT" for partner's suit assures a 9+ card trump suit.

         l. A "RAISE" is a bid of partner's suit which may be immediate or delayed.
             Raises without conventional systems include:

             A "SIMPLE RAISE" is a bid of partner's suit at the next level up,
             promising 3+ card support & 6-9 points.

             A "DELAYED LIMIT RAISE" first makes a TEMPORIZING BId then bids opener's
                  suit at the 3-level promising 3-card support with 10-12 points.

             A "LIMIT RAISE" is an immediate jump bid in opener's suit promising
             4+ card support & 10-12 points.

         m. "BIDDING UP-THE-LINE". This is the initial biding at the 1-level trying to find a fit.

         n. "INVERTED", "REVERSED" , "UP-SIDE-DOWN" means a bid sequence contrary to
              normal top-down bidding sequences, ie, pertains to bottom up bidding sequences.
             "INVERTED" pertains to point count. "REVERSE" pertains to relative suit rank.

         o. A "THRESHOLD BID" is one that passes up a possible NT bid, especially 2NT & 3NT.

         p. A "CUE BID" is a low-level bid in opponent's bid suit or a 4-level bid to show control.


     3. GENERAL BIDDING PRACTICES:

         a. INDIVIDUAL HAND EVALUATION - POINT RANGES.
              Point ranges being in increments of 3 can present a
              problem when in the middle or at the top of the range.
              Players in this situation should check their hand for
              tens & round up their points if they have a ten or more.

         b. INDIVIDUAL HAND EVALUATION - DELAY COUNTING SHORT SUITS.
              In first evaluating their point count, players should
              not count any points for shortness in a suit until they
              have detemined a fit with partner. In a fit with partner,
              the player can count his singleton/void as a king, ie 3 points.
              Dounletons are worthless.

         c. INDIVIDUAL HAND EVALUATION - POINT COUNT QUALITY.
              It behooves the partnership to consider the content of their individual
              point count, especially the responder. In the absence of having a
              quick trick, I suggest he deduct 1 point.

         d COMBINED POINT RANGE REQUIREMENTS for contract levels:
              1-level contract = 21-22 points
              2-level contract = 23-24 points.
              3-4-level contract = 25-28 points.
              5-level contract = 29-32 points.
              6-level contract = 33-36 points.
              7-level contract = 37-40 points.

         e. OPENING BID POSITIONS:
              Opening bids in 1st or 2nd seat require 13+ points.
              Openings in 3rd seat may begin at 10+ points with a 5-card suit.
              Openings in 4th seat may begin at 10+ points with 4+ spades.

         f. WEAK PREEMPTIVE BIDS:
              There is no justification for 4th seat to open preemptively.
              For the purpose of disrupting the opponents' bidding,
              an opener may immediately bid at the 2-level with 5-11
              points and a 6 card suit having a quick trick in the suit.
              With a 7+ card suit he can open at the 3-level. But he
              must not go any further than the 3-level.
              By the same token, responder with a weak hand & having
              no game possibility can make a WEAK-JUMP-RAISE in partner's
              suit with adequate support, or he can make a WEAK-JUMP-SHIFT
              in a suit in which he has 6+ cards. The same holds true for
              contesters. In other words, a first round jump bid by any
              player is weak and preemptive.

         g. CONSERVATION OF BIDDING SPACE.
              When game is a possibility , if showing a new suit, keep the
              first round of bidding low to enable complete communication.
              Bidding UP-THE-LINE at the 1-level to find an immediate
              major suit fit is an absolute must. (Discussed shortly.)

              In particular, this message is for responder.
              " RESPONDER- DO NOT PREEMPT YOUR PARTNER'S OPENING BID".
              If your partner opens the bidding with a 1 level suit bid, then do not
              jump on your first bid unless you are weak. Giving a jump bid to your partner's
              opening bid disrupts your partner's ability to give a jump on his 2nd bid to
              show you a 16-18 point hand as opposed to having only 13-15 points. It is
              sufficient that you give a non-jump bid in a new suit (other than your partner's
              & not in NT) to force your partner to bid again. You are then clear to do
              whatever you like after your partner's 2nd bid. It makes no difference
              how big your hand is. There is no excuse for cutting off your opening
              partner's ability to describe his point count and shape on his 2nd bid.

              Aside from the first round of bidding, the partnership should realize that in
              passing up a NT bid they are going to the next level up making a "threshold bid".
              And where raising a previously bid suit is not a big concern, for each level they
              go up in a new suit, they should probably have 3 points (ie, a King) more to do so.
              But this criteria can be difficult to abide by in going to the 3-level.

         h. FINDING AN IMMEDIATE PARTNERSHIP FIT & FAST ARRIVAL:

              1] When it comes to a FIT with partner, 5-4 is the best, 4-4
                  is next best, no-trump is next & finally the 5-3 fit.
                  The better the fit with your partner, the fewer points
                  you need to make a good contract.

              2] The principle of FAST ARRIVAL says that once you
                  find a fit with partner, you should not bid other suits
                  & betray your hand, unless partner's suit is a minor
                  and there is a possible major suit fit or no-trump
                  contract. Once a fit is found, the only other possible
                  reason for bidding other suits is to find a slam.

              3] RAISES of opener's suit opening:

                  a] In responding to a minor suit opening, INVERTED MINOR RAISES apply wherein
                      a SIMPLE RAISE is 10+ points with adequate support & forcing.
                      A JUMP RAISE is 6-9 points with adquate support.

                  b] In responding to a major suit opening, it should be noted that raises may
                      be "immediate" to show superior support or "delayed" to show marginal
                      or adequate support. A SIMPLE RAISE of opener's suit shows 7-9 points
                      with adequate trump support & is not forcing.
                      JUMP RAISES are LIMIT RAISES promising 4+ card support with 10-12 points
                      and are not forcing unless playing "conventional" raises like BERGEN.
                      A DELAYED LIMIT RAISE which bids a new suit forcing at the 2-level then bids
                      the major at the 3-level shows 3-card support with 10-12 points.
                      A 2C-DRURY LIMIT RAISE is made in response to a 3rd seat opening.
                      A 2D-DRURY LIMIT RAISE promising 4+ card support is made in response to
                      a 3rd seat opening.
                      A CUE BID in opponent's suit is a 3-card support limit raise.
                      A BERGEN 3C bid over opponent is a 4-card limit raise.
                      A BERGEN 3D bid over opponent is a 4-card simple raise.
                      A BERGEN JUMP RAISE bid over opponent is a 4-card preemptive raise.
                      A SPLINTER RAISE double jump to another suit shows a shortness in that suit
                      with superior support and 13-15 points.

         i. RESPONDER "NO FIT" CONSIDERATIONS over any suit bid opening at the 1-level:

             1] POINT COUNT LIMITS:
                  In addition to "fit" considerations, responder's second consideration is his point count.

                  a] With less than 6 points, responder should "pass" unless he has a 6+card
                      suit in which he can give a WEAK-JUMP-SHIFT. However, if responder does not
                      have a WEAK-JUMP-SHIFT & if opener started 1C & there was no interference,
                      then responder MUST bid. Even with 0 points or with long clubs, he must bid
                      & not 'pass", because opener may have game in hand. Therefore, he must
                      bid UP-THE-LINE without passing up 1NT. (Refer to 1C opening later).

                  b] With 6+ points & a 4+ card major suit, if possible, responder should give a
                      positive forcing bid at the 1-level in that suit or "DOUBLE" a 1-level
                      in another suit made by the opponent.

                      [1] BIDDING UP-THE-LINE at the 1-level in the absence of an immediate fit.
                          This process is intended to enable the opening partnership to quickly find
                          a 4-4 or better fit in the majors while still at the 1-level.

                          a] If opener began with 1C or 1D & responder has 6+ points with a 5+ spades.
                               responder must disregard all else & bid 1S. With a 4 card spade suit & less
                               than 4 hearts, responder will bid 1S. Opener must have 4 spades to raise the
                               spades, & his simple raise shows 13-15 points. His jump raise shows 16-18 points.

                          b] If responder has 4+ hearts and not 5+ spades, then with 6+ points he
                               will bid 1H. Again, opener must have 4 hearts to raise the hearts.
                               Opener's simple raise shows 13-15 points. His jump raise shows 16-18 points.

                          If there is an intervening bid at the 1-level, responder can DOUBLE to show
                          at least one 4-card major if not both. But holding one 5-card major responder
                          can simply overbid the opponent with his 5+ card suit, assuming he has the
                          points to do so.

                          If by chance opener bids a major at the 1-level after opening 1C or 1D, and
                          if responder has 4 cards in that major, then responder must simple raise
                          that major to the 2-level with 6-9 points or the 3-level with 10-12 points

                      [2] In the absence of having a 4+ card major suit
                          and with less than 10 points, responder can bid 1NT non-forcing. Or he can
                          raise opener's suit to the 2-level with adequate support, unless playing
                          inverted raises or some other convention.

                  c] With 10-12 points & no fit with opener, he can bid a new suit at the
                      2-level. To show a new suit at the 2-level without jumping requires
                      10+ points & is forcing. Over a 1S opening, responder can only bid 2H
                      if he has 5+ hearts & 10+ points. Responder's 2C or 2D bid over 1H or 1S
                      will only show 10+ points & promises nothing in length about the minor suit.

                  d] With 13 points & no fit with opener, responder is safe to bid beyond 2NT.

             2] Having not previously "passed" & given 6+ points to make a positive bid,
                  responder's simple bid in a new suit at any time is forcing.

         j. Opener bidding a new suit is NOT forcing.

         k. Who is the CAPTAIN?
              A preemptive bidder an never be the captain.
              The first partner to limit their hand's point range to within
              3 points is the subordinate partner to the captain.
              The no-trump opener is NEVER the captain.
              The responder who immediately raises the opener's suit
              or bids NT on his first bid is NEVER captain.
              "Stay in your lane Bro"
              The CAPTAIN is the partner who determines the max bid
              level to which the partnership can go.

         l. In the absence of a fit, either no-trump is the best contract,
              or being in a trump suit belonging to the weaker hand.

         m. Always take pause in passing up 3NT. Quite often a 5-3 fit
              will make 3NT, but fail to make 4 in the suit. And without any
              suit length mismatch, a 4-4 fit will most likely fail.

         n. The partner who should play the contract is he who can best absorb
              the opening lead. Usually it is the stronger of the two hands.

         o. GENERAL RULE Regarding Opponent's "Double."
              If you like the double, NEVER REDOUBLE except to tell partner you have a misfit.
              If given at the very lowest level(s), it promises 10+ points.
              If given at a higher level, it is an SOS REDOUBLE for partner to pick another suit.



C. THE COMPLETE BIDDING SYSTEM.

     C-1. OPENING BIDS & THE POINT COUNT SCALE.
         a. In opening the bidding, indeed in making any bid, two things are considered:
             POINTS & SHAPE.
         b. The following chart shows how to open the combinations of shape & points.
             It should be noted that the point count range spreads up to 24 are in increments
             of 3. The opener's point range spread impacts the responder's invitational
             point range by virtue of the fact that the responder's invitational point range
             must be the compliment of the opener's point range relative to 25 points.
             So, with a minimum opening point range of 13-15, the responder's game
             invitational point range is 12-10 points. Any bigger point spread makes it
             impossible for responder to logically invite opener to game with any degree
             of accuracy.


                


         c. With respect to INDIVIDUAL HAND SHAPES, there are 6 types:
             BALANCED, SEMI-BALANCED, 3-SUITED, 2-SUITED, COMPANION SUITED, & 1-SUITED.
             This matrix outlines how to opening bid the 6 hand shapes vs point count.
            

         d. OPENER REBIDS

             1] VOLUNTARY NT THRESHHOLD CROSS-OVER BIDS convey extra points.
                  Eample: 1S - 2H - 3C should have 16-18 points or equivalent shape value.

             2] Opener's change of suits on 2nd bid is not forcing.

             3] NECESSARY LIES?:
                  It is a very old rule of bridge that if opener rebids his suit, then he has
                  an extra card in that suit. But sometimes it is necessary to lie.

                  A problem can exist with the 13-15 point opening when opener begins in
                  a major at the 1-level & responder makes a forcing bid at the 2-level.
                  Opener, not having stoppers in what could be opponent's suit(s),
                  will not want to bid 2NT. Nor has he enough points to bid to the 3-level.
                  His only safe option is to rebid his 5-card suit at the 2-level.

                  A similar problem can exist for 16-18 point opening hands playing 2/1 where
                  resopnder has given a 1NT FORCING bid with 6-12 points. If opener has only
                  a 5-card suit & no lower ranking 4-card suit to jump in, he has a real problem.
                  Having no clue as to the responders real point range, he must proceed with
                  caution. Something has to to give & it should not be his point range.
                  The only apparent solution is to jump rebid his 5-card suit.

                  Perhaps we might consider a different solution. Given the opener has been
                  been put in the position of not being able to bid another 4-card suit,
                  might not the opener be allowed to bid a 3-card suit where he has a stopper?
                  Certainly, there should be no problem if the stopper is in a lower ranking suit.
                  But if the stopper is in a higher ranking suit, this could present more of a
                  problem than simply rebidding the original 5-card suit. No matter, it should be
                  noted that the 2/1 Forcing 1NT makes life much more difficult in this regard.

             4] COUNTER-MEASURES TO INTERFERENCE:

                  There are various kinds of contention interference bids over a 1-level opening:
                  Doubles, Simple Overcalls, Weak Jump Overcalls, Michaels, Unusual 2NT over suit bids.
                  Hamuilton, Dont, Broxel, Landy, & Astro over 1NT openings.

                  It can be rare that given a bidding sequence where opener's 2nd seat LHO passes
                  & his 4th seat RHO bids over an unpassed responder. But it can happen with the
                  Take Out Double being a common weapon and easy to defend against. And a 4th
                  seat Simple Overcall can also be one of the easier bids to counter. But when
                  it comes to countering a Weak Jump Overcall or one of the 2-suited bids,
                  or 4th seat raises of 2nd seat's bids, things become a lot more difficult.
                  For this reason. I advance the use of Inverted Bergen Raises and the Lebensohl
                  2NT Relay To 3C as counter-measures to these more nasty situations.

                  The following tries to cover some of the easier scenarios where 4th seat has bid.

                      a] If responder has bid 1D/1C or made a Weak Jump Shift or gave a
                          Weak Jump Bergen Raise (e: 1H -> 1S -> 3H), then opener should "pass" .

                      b] If responder passed, then if opener has 16-18 points or a 6+ card
                          rebiddable suit or opener has 5 spades with a viable lower ranked
                          suit, then opener should bid no higher than the 2-level.

                      c] If responder has raised opener's suit without it being preemptive,
                          then opener's "double" or "redouble" forces to game.

                      d] If responder bid a new suit at the 1-level over 2nd seat's bid,
                          then responder has a 5+ card suit in which case with only 3-card
                          support opener might consider NT rather than showing support.
                          But if 2nd seat did not bid, then responder's suit could
                          be a 4-card suit, in which case the following applies:
                          [1] With 3-card support for partner, opener should "double" or "redouble"
                          [2] With 4+ card support &:
                               13-15 points, opener should simple raise partner's suit.
                               16-18 points, opener should jump raise his suit.
                          [3} With no support for partner, but with:
                               13-15 points & a 6+card suit, opener should rebid it.
                               13-15 points & 5 spades & a 2nd suit, bid 2nd suit.
                               16-18 points, opener should bid as cheap as possible.
                               Otherwise opener should "pass" to let responder rebid.

                      e] If responder has "doubled" 2nd seat's 1-level suit bid , then
                          opener should be checking his hand for any unbid 4-card major.

                      f] If responder has bid a Non-Forcing 1NT, opener should only bid again if
                          he has 16-18 points or a long 6+ card suit.

                      g] If responder made a Bergen Raise in response to opener's
                          5-card opening, then opener can likely ignore the interference &
                          bid as normal, assuming the interference did not get in the way.

                      h] If responder bid a Lebensohl 2NT Relay, then opener is obligated
                          to bid 3C if he is able & regardless of any intervention.

                      i] If opponent made a simple overcall, then:
                          [1] If responder had not bid, opener's "double"
                               is a reopening double demanding a bid from partner.
                          [2] Making an OPENER'S CUE BID in RHO's suit
                               would not happen unless responder had made a positive
                               bid & opener had 16-18 points. The opener's cue bid would be
                               WESTERN CUE asking responder to bid No-Trump with a stopper.

             5] .Go To UNIVERSAL COUNTER MEASURES


     C-2. RESPONSES TO OPENING BIDS.

         CLARIFICATION ON TWO-OVER-ONE RESPONSES:
         I am no fan of 2/1 which was introduced in the 1980s as an adjustment to what
         was otherwise a perfectly good bidding system. There was much done to contort
         the existing bidding system to make room for 2/1, specifically, the increase in
         the point range from 6-9 to 6-12 points of the 1NT response and making it a forcing
         bid, where it had been one of the weakest responses possible. This change is
         most objectionable.

         Aside from that, 2/1 has many other drawbacks. For one thing, the system only applies
         to 1st & 2nd seat in the deal. Secondly, the system is "off" in the face of interference.
         Thirdly, the 1NT response to a minor overlaps and conflicts with INVERTED MINOR responses.
         Fourthly, there is no point to 2C/1D being game forcing based upon an opening hand vs an
         an opening hand, because it takes 29+ points to make game at the 5-level in a minor.

         There has been only one time that I could ever justify playing 2/1 and that is where a strong
         responder seeking slam needs to confirm the suit agreement before asking for key cards.
         EXAMPLE: 1S -> 2D (non game-forcing) -> 2H -> ?? where responder has 4 hearts. If responder
         bids 3H, opener might just pass on him. Opener needs to know that responder wants game
         before hand. So here is where a game forcing bid is needed for the purpose of allowing the
         responder to bid 3H without fear of opener passing.

         So there is a need for 2/1, but not including 1NT being forcing & 2C being game forcing.
         My position is that a response of 2D over a major suit opening be the only game forcing bid.
         This returns to the old system of 1NT being a bare response & 2C & 2H being forcing 1 round.
         "So," you ask. "what if responder has diamonds with 10-12 points?". Obviously,
         responder does not have 4-card support for opener, otherwise he would give a
         Bergen raise. If he had 4 spades over 1H, his diamonds are of little concern,
         because he will bid 1S/1H. If the opening was 1S and playing non-2/1, responder
         would bid 2H/2S one-round-forcing with 10-12 points & 5 hearts, as opposed to
         squelching his heart suit playing 2/1. So now what if responder has 6,7.8 or 9
         diamonds and 4 hearts? At this point we need to ask if responder has the AK
         of diamonds & another quick trick to consider a 3NT contract. If so, then
         a one round forcing bid of 2C is in order, albeit he may not have any clubs
         at all. Otherwise, a jump to 3D should be construed as 10-12 points as opposed
         to a 2NT Lebensohl relay to 3C followed by 3D as being a Weak Jump Shift.
         But a 2NT relay to 3C followed by a bid of 3S would be a 3-card limit raise
         of opener's spade suit.


         a. The FORCING 1C OPENING is either 12-18 points or 25+ points. It excludes 19-24 range.

             There is no reason to not treat the 1C opening as forcing & only tending to deny a
             5+ card suit. There are at least two advantages. First, the club opener will not be left
             in a lousy 1C contract. Secondly, the opener can have game in his hand, which means
             he can open 1C without responder "passing", thereby allowing opener to make a game
             forcing rebid.

             IMPACT:
             This makes it possible to limit the 2C opener to 19-24 points.
             Of course, opener may have a long suit with 25+ points, but how often does that happen?
             The chances are much greater that opener will have 19-24 points.

             1] NEGATIVE RESPONSES TO 1C are less than 6 points :
                  Responder must bid even with 0 points & long clubs.

                  a] A 1D/1C response is a forcing bid that either indicates that responder has a balanced
                      hand or 6+ card diamond suit with 10+ points which he intends to rebid, or it is a warning
                      to opener that responder may have 0 points. For this reason, opener must proceed with
                      caution and not jump on his first bid, unless he has a 25+ point game forcing hand,
                      in which case he can jump immediately to 3D, 3H, or 3S GF. Otherwise, he must
                      must bid up-the-line at the 1-level without passing up 1NT or 2C. If responder
                      does not rebid above 2C, then opener knows responder is bust, & the bidding
                      must cease at the 1-level as soon as they find a 4-3 major suit fit or until
                      1NT is bid.

                  b] 2D,2H,2S/1C = WEAK JUMP SHIFT = 0-6 points with 6+ card suit.

             2] POSITIVE RESPONSES TO 1C are 6+ points:

                  a] 1H or 1S = 6+ points with 4+ cards in that major suit.

                  b] The following responses deny a 4+ card major.

                      1NT/1C = 6-9 points. Non-Forcing. [3,3,3,4] [3,3,4,3] [3,3,5,2] [3,3,2,5]

                      2C/1C = Forcing INVERTED MINOR RAISE = 10+ points with 4+ clubs.

                      2D/??/1D/1C = Forcing TEMPORIZED 2D REBID = 10-12 points & 5+ diamonds.

                      2NT/??/1D/1C = Non-Forcing TEMPORIZED 2NT INVITATIONAL REBID = 10-12 points.

                      2NT/1C = Forcing LEBENSOHL RELAY TO 3C = 6-9 points with 6+ of a minor.

                      3C/1C = Non-Forcing INVERTED MINOR RAISE = 8-9 points with 5 clubs & singleton
                                   or 6-9 points with 6+ clubs.

                      3D/1?/1D/1C = Forcing TEMPORIZED 3D DIAMOND REBID = 13+ points & 6+ diamonds.                 

             3] .Go To UNIVERSAL COUNTER MEASURES



         b. The 1D OPENING promises a 4+ card diamond suit, if not 5+ diamonds.

             IMPACT UPON 1C OPENING:
             If 1D promises 5+ diamonds, then a 1C opening could be as few as 1, ie, 4-4-4-1.
             And since the 1C opening is forcing, there should be no reason to fret over its
             minimum card count in clubs when bidding 1C.

             RESPONSES:
             Whether opener promises 4 or 5 cards in diamonds, it should be possible to
             see some similarities to bidding the major suits. Certainly, in promising a
             5+ card suit it is easy to see the similarity. However, one difference is that
             Inverted Minor Raises are used in responding to 1D, where Bergen Raises are
             used in responding to a major. But even these two response systems are similar.
             For one thing, the Inverted Bergen Raise of 3D is exactly the same point
             range as the Inverted Minor Raise of 3D. And there is certainly no reason
             to not use Splinter Raises in either system. So what about the 3C jump bid?
             In Inverted Bergen 3C would mean a Limit Raise. But in Inverted Minor Raises
             3C would be a preempt, where in Bergen the Lebensohl 2NT Relay to 3C is used
             to prempt. So the question becomes, "Can we use the Lebensohl 2NT Relay over
             a 1D opening to free up the 3C/1D bid for something else, like an Inverted
             Begen 3C Limit Raise in diamonds?'. And the answer is "yes" depending upon
             the responder's bid position, wherein he must be in 3rd or 4th seat. WHY?
             The answer is, "because 2NT is an unused bid when responder is in one of
             those seats, it being replaced by the 2/1 1NT Forcing response".

             So much for the similarities between a 5-card major & a 5-card 1D opening.
             But promising a 4-card suit requires some thought about responding with
             a diamond raise, especially the Inverted Minor jump to 3D showing 6-9 points.
             No matter. The following treats 1D opening as if promising 4+ diamonds &
             addresses that issue.

             1] MAJOR SUIT BIDDING:

                  a] 1H or 1S/1D = 6+ points with 4+ cards of that major.

                  b] 2H,2S/1D = WEAK JUMP SHIFT = 0-6 points with 6+ card suit.

             2] The following responses deny a 4+ card major. It is noted that playing 2/1
                  conflicts with INVERTED MINOR RAISES, as the 2/1 1NT response = 6-12 points.
                  This conflicts with the forcing INVERTED MINOR RAISE promising 10+ points.
                  Therefore, we wil not play 2/1 as a response to 1D.

                  1NT/1D = 6-9 points. Non Forcing.

                  2C/1D = NEW SUIT FORCING = 10+ points with minimum 4+ clubs (3,3,3,4+).

                  2D/1D = Forcing INVERTED MINOR RAISE = 10+ points with 4+ diamonds (3,3,4+,3).

                  2NT/2?/2C/1D = Non-Forcing TEMPORIZED 2NT INVITATIONAL REBID = 10-12 points.

                  2NT/1C = Forcing LEBENSOHL RELAY TO 3C = 6-9 points with 6+ of a minor.

                  3C/1D = Forcing BERGEN RAISE = 10-12 points & 5+ diamonds.

                  3D/1D = Non-Forcing INVERTED MINOR RAISE = 6-9 points & 5-card support or
                                                8-9 points with only 4 card support.

                   3H or 3S or 4C = Forcing SPLINTER RAISE promising 5+ diamonds & 13-15 points.


             3] .Go To UNIVERSAL COUNTER MEASURES


         c. The 1H OR 1S OPENING promises at least 5 cards in the suit.

             IN WHAT SEAT IS OPENER:
             If the opening is in 1st or 2nd seat & playing 2/1, then 1NT = 6-12 points
             & is forcing. If not playing 2/1, a 1NT response is the usual 6-9 points non-forcing.
             If the opening is in 3rd seat, then opener may have as few as 10 points, in which
             case a 2C DRURY response is used to indicate 10-12 points with 3 or 4+ card support.
             If the opening is in 4th seat, then opener should have a normal opening hand,
             albeit extra credit may be given to holding 4+ spades known as Pearson Points.

             TEMPORIZING:
             The idea of responder "temporizing" entails making a forcing bid that is lower than
             where you intend to wind up. It is a delaying bid.
             Example: Playing 2/1 partner has opened 1S. You have 3 spades & 4 hearts. You want
                               to know if partner has 4 hearts. So you "temporize" by bidding 1NT forcing.
             2/1 responses do not apply when there has been interference or when the opening is
             in 3rd or 4th seat, in which case a 1NT response is not forcing. Given that a 2/1
             bid of 1NT is forcing & used as a TEMPORIZING BID, how does the non 2/1 bidder
             make a forcing temporizing bid? The answer is that 2C is forcing & used to temporize.
             But as we shall soon see, I have come up with even another way to "temporize".

             THE IMPORTANCE OF 4+ CARD SUPPORT:
             It is important for responder to note whether or not he has support and its quality.
             The LAW OF TOTAL TRICKS makes it imperative for responder to distinguish in his
             bidding if he has 3 or 4+ card support. That law says that if you have a 9-card trump
             suit, you are safe to compete to higher levels given a tad fewer combined points
             than usually required for a trump contract.

             With 4+ CARD SUPPORT & applicable point count, SPLINTER & INVERTED BERGEN
             RAISES are in order. A SPLINTER RAISE is a double jump in a singleton or void with
             4+ card support & 13-15 points. An INVERTED BERGEN LIMIT RAISE is a jump to 3C
             with 10-12 points & 4+ card support. The advantage of "INVERTED" BERGEN is the
             responder may have a LIMIT RAISE with a singleton or void which can be discovered
             & enable a game bid. An INVERTED BERGEN SIMPLE RAISE is a jump to 3D promising
             6-9 points & 4+ card support. Because BERGEN RAISES replace responder's ability
             to preempt in a minor, the 2NT LEBENSOHL RELAY to 3C is used to fix this. BERGEN
             RAISES can be used instead of 2-OVER-1, & in competition replacing JORDAN. Finally,
             with 4+ card support and 4-6 points, responder can preempt opener's suit to the
             3-level. Given this capability, there is no redundant need for 4-level preempts. A direct
             ACOL jump raise to the 4-level will show 13-15 points & no shortness, thereby eliminating
             the need for the JACOBY 2NT convention.

             With 3-CARD SUPPORT, the first response depends upon points. Holding 10-12 points
             responder has a 3-CARD LIMIT RAISE which he can show by first making a temporizing bid,
             followed by bidding opener's suit at the 3-level. It should be noted that the Lebensohl 2NT
             relay to 3C can be used as a temporizing bid before bidding the 3-CARD LIMIT RAISE.
             Past methods of temporizing include the forcing 1NT, the forcing 2C, & the forcing cue-bid.
             No matter the method of temporizing, this is called a "DELAYED LIMIT RAISE".
             With 6-9 points responder can give a direct SIMPLE RAISE of opener's suit to the 2-level.             
             with any 3-card supporting bid, it is most desirable that responder have a short suit
             on which his 3 trumps can be used. Otherwise, he should consider bidding 1 or 2NT
             rather than bidding opener's suit.


             1] RESPONSES:

                  a] IMMEDIATE RAISES OF OPENER'S SUIT:
                      [1] A SIMPLE RAISE of 2H/1H or 2S/1S = 6-9 points & only 3-card support.
                      [2] IMMEDIATE REVERSE or INVERTED BERGEN RAISE responses:
                          3C = 10-12 points & 4+ card support.
                          3D = 7-9 points & 4+ card support.
                          3H/1H & 3S/1S = 4-6 points & 4+ card support.
                      [3] With 13-15 points & 4+ card support, 3S,4C,4D/1H is a SPLINTER RAISE showing
                          a singleton/void in the suit jumped to. 4C,4D,4H/1S is also a SPLINTER RAISE.

                  b] DELAYED/TEMPORIZED 3-CARD LIMIT RAISE OF OPENER'S SUIT:
                      The method of temporizing is optional to the responder. But I recommend bidding
                      the LEBENSOHL 2NT RELAY TO 3C followed by bidding opener's suit at at the
                      3-level to show 10-12 points with 3-card support.

                  c] 2-WAY DRURY is a response to 3rd seat opening in a major, where responder has
                      10-12 points & bids 2C with 3-card support , or 2D with 4+ card support support.
                      REGULAR DRURY only uses 2C as a response.

                  d] NON-FIT RESPONSES:
                      [1] 2-OVER-1 is a response to a 1st or 2nd seat opening, where a bid of a lower
                          suit at the 2-level is game forcing. The 1NT response is forcing one round &
                          shows 7-12 points. It should also be noted that the 2/1 system is off with
                          interference. I do not recommend it when 2C/1D is bid.
                      [2] A 1S/1H or 1NT/1H,1S may or may not indicate a non-fit.
                          Responder may have 4 spades & 3 hearts.
                      [3] A 2C or 2D response = 10+ points forcing one round,
                          In 2/1 = GF opposite 1-2 seat.
                      [4] 2H/1S = 10+ points & a 5-card heart suit. In 2/1 = GF opposite 1-2 seat.
                      [5] 2S/1H is a WEAK JUMP SHIFT = 4-6 points & a 6+ card spade suit.
                      [6] 2NT is a LEBENSOHL RELAY to 3C. The purpose here is to still allow responder
                          a minor suit weak jump where he can have 4-9 points & 6+ cards in a minor.
                          (Requires opener to bid 3C.) If responder has long diamonds
                          instead of long clubs, he can bid 3D and opener will "pass".

             2] DETAILED RECAP OF RESPONSES TO MAJOR SUIT OPENINGS AT THE 1-LEVEL.
            
                

             3] .Go To UNIVERSAL COUNTER MEASURES


         d. RESPONDER REBIDS after opener's rebid in response to 1-level suit opening.
             1] VOLUNTARY NT THRESHHOLD CROSS-OVER BIDS convey extra points.
                 Eample: 1S - 2H - 3C should have 16-18 points or equivalent shape value.
                 Generally speaking, responder should not crossover a possible bid in No-Trump to bid
                 a new suit at or above the 2-level without at leasr 10 points.
                 Nor should opener show a new suit at the 3-level 16 or more points,
                 unless responder has already bid at the 3-level.
             2] A simple suit shift bid by responder indicates a stronger hand and is forcing 1 round.
             3] NEW MINOR FORCING after opener rebids 1NT say responder has 5-card suit with 10+ points.
             4] FOURTH SUIT FORCING generally asks opener to bid NT if he has stopper in that suit.
             5] WESTERN CUE is a bid asking partner to bid NT ih he has a stopper.


         e. NO-TRUMP OPENINGS:
             The 1NT OPENING = 16-18 points. 2NT OPENING = 19-21 points. SYSTEMS are on.

             In no-trump, it takes at least 25 points to make game up to the 4-level, 29-32 points for the 5-level,
             33-36 points for small slam, and 37-40 points for grand slam. For an individual's hand with
             up to 24 points, all point ranges are in 3-point increments, the value of a king.

             Todays players were not around before Weak-2 openings & when a 1NT opening was
             16-18 points. They are playing 1NT = 15-17 points with a SLIVER BID of 1C followed
             by a jump to 2NT = 18-19 points. This is a totally useless convention, because it
             destroys an immediate responder transfer. Oh yes, they say they can use NEW MINOR
             FORCING to find their precious 5-3 fit. They obviously do not care about using STAYMAN.
             The fact is that many times a 5-3 will not make 4 of a major, but will make 3NT.
             For this reason, I require the old 1NT opening to be 16-18 points and 2NT is 19-21 points.

             For 22-24 points, the standard 2NT is delayed via 2C -> 2NT. But this too
             is self destructive, because an opemning 2NT is a stronger bid than 2C.
             Therefore, my view is that the opening 2NT should be the old 22-24 points.
             Nevertheless, I still allow for the migration from the current nonsense.

             RESPONSES:

             1] COMMON CONVENTIONAL RESPONSES:
                  It is assumed the reader is already familiar with these:

                  a] QUANTITATIVE RESPONSES are 4NT, 5NT, 6NT over 1NT or 2NT.
                      4NT invites to 6NT, 5NT forces to 6NT, 6NT invites to 7NT.

                  b] GARBAGE STAYMAN RESPONSES are 2C over 1NT.
                      Responder must have 5-6 points with both 4 card majors.
                      Asks opener for a 4-card major. Opener 2D denies. 2H says hearts & maybe spades.
                      Opener 2S denies hearts. With fit responder can "pass". If opener bids 2D,
                      responder can bid 2H to which opener will "pass" or bid 2S which responder
                      which responder will "pass"

                  c] REGULAR STAYMAN RESPONSES are 2C over 1NT & 3C over 2NT.
                      Responder must have 7+ points with at least one 4 card major to invite game.
                      Asks opener for a 4-card major. Opener 2D denies. 2H says hearts & maybe spades.
                      Opener 2S denies hearts. With 7-8 points responder can invite game.
                      Responder with 9+ point can force to game.
                      If opener bids 2D and reponder has 9+ points with 5 of one major and 4
                      of the other major, he can bid the 4-card major at the 3-level to
                      invite opener to bid his 5-card major. (aka. SMOLEN)

                  d] POST STAYMAN 3H or 3S GAME FORCING SMOLEN TRANSFER used to transfer
                      opener to responder's other 5-card major after opener has bid a diamond denial
                      in reply to responder's STAYMAN bid. (Responder is 5-4 in the majors.)

                  e] TRANSFERS TO MAJORS, 2D/1NT & 3D/2NT transfers to hearts.
                      2H/1NT & 3H/2NT transfers to spades.

                  f] 3C or 3D are WEAK MINOR INVITES to 3NT over 1NT.
                      The responder has what would be considered a premptive minor suit with
                      2 of the top 3 honors and hopes opener has the other top honor with which
                      opener can bid 3NT. Otherwise opener would "pass".

                  g] 3H-3S MARCUS MAJORS OVER 1NT shows 5-5 in majors where 3H invites opener
                      to game in either major & 3S is game forcing to either major.

                  h] 2S MINOR SUIT STAYMAN shows responder with a 2-suited hand in the minors.

             2] SOME NEW SOLUTIONS:

                  a] LOW-LEVEL STAYMAN, aka, modified PUPPET STAYMAN.
                      With a 5-card spade suit, opener rebids 2S/2C or 3S/3C.
                      Witha 5-card heart suit,opener rebids 2NT/2C or 3NT/3C.
                      With a 4-card heart suit, opener rebids 2H/2C or 3H/3C.
                      With no 4-card heart suit, opener rebids 2D/2C or 3D/3C.

                  b] ROLLING TRANSFER TO CLUBS.
                      To transfer to clubs, responder bids 2D/1NT or 3D/2NT followed by 2S/2H or 3S/3H.
                      Example: 1NT - 2D (TRANSFER) - 2H - 2S (TRANSFER) - 3C

                  c] ROLLING TRANSFER TO DIAMONDS.
                      To transfer to diamonds, responder bids 2H/1NT or 3H/2NT followed by 3C/2S or 4C/3S.
                      Example: 1NT - 2H (TRANSFER) - 2S - 3C (TRANSFER) - 3D

                  d] RECAP OF NO TRUMP OPENINGS & MINOR SUIT TRANSFERS.
                 

             3] .Go To UNIVERSAL COUNTER MEASURES


         f. The 2C OPENING is reduced to 19-24 points (promises 3 stoppers).

             For the 2C OPENING there is no reason to not isolate the point count to 19-24
             or a 4.5 loser non-game forcing hand.

             IMPACT UPON SUIT OPENINGS AT THE 1-LEVEL:
             This means all 1-level suit opening bids are no greater than 18 points, with
             the exception of the 1C bid which may be 25+ points if not 12-18 points.
             Opener jump rebids, jump shifts, & strong reverse rebids will be limited
             to 16-18 points.

             RESPONDER STRENGTH EVALUATION - EFFECTIVE POINT COUNT:
             At the higher bidding levels, QUICK TRICKS are more important than points.
             An Ace in one suit with a King in another is certainly more important at higher
             levels than two Queens and one King. Therefore, responder must give an
             EFFECTIVE POINT COUNT if he does not have 1.5 QUICK TRICKS as part of his points.
             Responder is advised to deduct 1 point if he does not have 1.5 QUICK TRICKS.

             RESPONSES:
             The 2D WAITING response to 2C is worthless and replaced by the following.

             1] "PASS" response: Responder has 6+ clubs & not 1.5 QTs or 7+ points.

             2] 2D response:

                  a] OPTION 1 2D UP-THE-LINE RESPONSE - Means responder has spades & maybe hearts.
                      This makes the 2H bid a real 4+ card suit bid that denies spades.

        

                  b] OPTION 2 2D NEGATIVE RESPONSE - Means responder has less than 1.5 QTs.
                      This makes the 2H bid showing responder has 3+ spades & 1.5+ QTs or 7+ points.

             3] 2S response: Is transfer to 2NT.
                  He does not have a 6-card suit, nor is he 5-5 in the minors.

             4] 2NT response is 5-5 in minors.

             5] 3C response is transfer to 3D. Responder must have 6 card suit.

             6] 3D response is transfer to 3H. Responder must have 6 card suit.

             7] 3H response is transfer to 3S. Responder must have 6 card suit.

             8] 3S response is transfer to 4C. Responder must have 6 card suit & 1.5+ QT.

             OPENER REBIDS:
             Assuming responder has not gotten in his way with a preemptive bid,
             if opener has a 6-card suit with 19-21 oints, he can immediately bid it at the 3-level.
             If opener has a good quality 6-card suit with 22-24 points or a 7+ card suit,
             he can bid it at the 4-level.

             OPENER RESTRICTION: Opener must not be allowed to use 4C or 4D as ace asking,
             because he may have a long minor to be bid at the 4-level.

             Example: Opener is (1,2,2,8) 19 pts. . . . Responder is (3,4,5,1) 7 pts
            

                               2C > 2H (promising strength & 3+ spades) > 3C (showing long clubs) >
                                       > 3NT > 4C (Not asking. Responder is Captain)


         g. The 2D COMBO OPENING 5-11 or 19-24 PTS:

             A 19 point hand composed of a 4-4-4-1 holding is not conducive to opening either
             2C or 2NT. Some people play 2D weak. Others play it as Mini Roman. Why not both?
             For the 2D OPENING there is no reason it cannot serve a dual purpose, ie, as a
             weak-2 opening & a strong 4-4-4-1 MINI-ROMAN hand. And because it must be forcing,
             the only real concern is opener winding up in 3D if he has a super weak hand. Where
             typically he could open with as few as 5 points, it is recommended that he be higher
             and nearer the 10 point limit. Either that, or he should have at least 2 of the top
             3 honors with a QT in a side suit. I have developed a set of responses to enable this
             dual use which is more completely described in the following.

             RESPONSES:

             1] With a weak hand, RESPONDER MUST KEEP THE BIDDING GOING.
                  A 2H response shows responder with a weak hand of 0-12 points.
                  OPENER WILL THEN TELL RESPONDER IF HE IS STRONG OR WEAK.
                  a] If weak, opener will rebid 2NT, after which responder can bid 3D all passing.
                      Example: 2D -> 2H -> 2NT -> 3D- > Pass
                  b] With a strong hand of 4-4-4-1, opener will rebid the suit just under his short suit
                      or 3NT to show a long diamond suit.
                      Example: 2D -> 2H -> 2S (SHORT IN CLUBS)
                      When opener shows a strong hand, if responder has 6-12 points, he can force
                      to game by bidding the opener's indicated short suit.

             2] A 2NT response shows responder with a strong hand of 13+ points looking for game.
                  OPENER WILL THEN TELL RESPONDER IF HE IS STRONG OR WEAK.
                  a] If weak, opener with rebid according to their convention agreement,ie ,
                      showing FEATURES/CONTROLS, or OGUST, etc.
                      Example: 2D -> 2NT-> 3C (OGUST WEAK-WEAK)
                  b] With a strong 4-4-4-1 hand, opener must show his shortness as follows:
                      4C short in spades, 4D short in clubs, 4H short in diamonds & 4S short in hearts.
                      A 3NT rebid will show a long diamond suit.
                      Example: 2D -> 2NT -> 4C (SHORT IN SPADES)
                      The partnership may agree upon a different meaning for the 4-level bids,
                      as long as they don't bid their shortness.         


     C-3. PREEMPTIVE & CONTENTION BIDDING:

         a. WEAK OPENING PREEMPTS.
             The Weak Opening Preempt is effectively a defensive opening bid & similar in
             all respects to the contender Weak-Jump Overcall. For this reason it is grouped
             here as a "contention" bid.

             DETAILED RECAP:
            

         b. CONTENDER OVERCALLS & DOUBLES:
             The contender should note in particular:
             - His bidding position. Is he behind or in front of the strong opponent hand?
             - His hand's strength relative to the current bid-level. Has he points for the bid-level?
             - His hand's shape in choosing an overcall. Is he balanced, 1-suited, 2-suited?
             - Is he contending against a suit or no-trump opening?
             - What is the relative vulnerability, favorable, unfavorable, or equal?
             These are all questions he should answer before passing or bidding.
             If he does choose to bid, here are a few choices:

             1] SIMPLE SINGLE-SUIT overcall.
                  A Simple Non-Jump overcall in a new suit should have a 5+card suit & 10-15 points.
                  For stronger hands use the TAKE-OUT DOUBLE.

                  SPOILER RESPONSES TO PARTNER'S SIMPLE OVERCALL.
                  With just 3-card support & 7-9 points, spoiler can simple raise the overcaller's
                  suit to the 2-level. With 3-card support & 10-12 points, spoiler can give
                  a CUE BID in opponent's suit.

                  But with 4-card support, it can become even
                  more encouraging to try for game, because the partnership is assured of having
                  at least 9 trump. And for this reason, it seems logical to use the BERGEN
                  system, even though contender may have only 10 points. If the overcall is in
                  a major at the 1-level or 2-level, then the BERGEN 3C LIMIT RAISE & the 3D
                  SIMPLE RAISE would be the same as if the contender had opened in 1H or 1S.
                  If the overcall is in diamonds at the 1-level or 2-level, then a spoiler's
                  bid of 3C could still be a limit raise, & 3D would still be 7-9 points,
                  both promising 4+ card support. But if the overcall is 2C, then obviously
                  BERGEN cannot be used. In this event, the CUE BID in opponent's suit at
                  the 2-level would be a LIMIT RAISE not restricted to just 3-card support,
                  & the bid of 3C would be 7-9 points with preferably 4-card support.

             2] SINGLE-SUIT WEAK-JUMP overcall. (Not the same as a responder WeakJump Shift)
                  A Weak Jump overcall in a new suit is basically the same as a Weak-2 opewing.
                  it should have a 6+ card suit and 5-11 points appropriate to the bid level &
                  realtive vulnerability. If at the 3-level, it should have 7+ cards in the suit
                  or be in the higher point range with a 6-card suit. And because it is an early
                  sacrifice bid, with unfavorabie vulnerability the point count should be in
                  the higher point range. Additionally, it is preferable to have 2 of the top 3
                  homors in the long suit.

             3] TAKEOUT-DOUBLE:
                  At the 2-level or below, it is forcing if spoiler's right hand opponent passes.
                  But at the 3-level, it is "COOPERATIVE", meaning spoiler can "pass"
                  if he thinks he can defeat the opponents' contract.

                  Speaking of bid-level, it is expected that "doubles" of 3-level bids contain at
                  least 16 points. "Doubles" of 2-level bids will employ spoiler LEBENSOHL bids.
                  No matter, the contender must be careful of not forcing the spoiler too high.

                  The Take-Out Double is one of the most common contention bids made.
                  Many people will play it highly disciplined, meaning that the doubler
                  will have 4-cards in both majors. Others play it "OFF SHAPE", meaning they
                  promise opening hand & say nothing about the majors. I recommend playing it
                  "semi-disciplined" promising one 4-card major or a strong hand described
                  as follows assuming a 1 or 2 level opening bid.

                  a] With 16+ points, regarless of shape, contender should first "double" then rebid.

                  b] With 13-15 points & a 4-card major & no 6-card suit, contender should "double".

                   Otherwise, with 13-15 points & no 4+ card major,
                       refer to the Light 1NT Overcall.

                  d] SPOILER RESPONSES TO THE TAKE-OUT DOUBLE.
                       The takeout double demands spoiler to bid should his right hand opponent "pass".
                       Spoiler must heed when he is forced to bid as opposed to being "off-the-hook"
                       because his right hand opponent bid. If spoiler bids after his right hand
                       opponent has bid, then spoiler's bid ia a "FREE BID" promising at least
                       6 points at the 1-level & 10+ points at the 2-level. However, if the "double"
                       was of a 2NT bid or higher, then spoiler has the option of leaving the doubled
                       bid in if he thinks he can set the contract. But a general guideline says
                       that the weaker the spoiler's hand, the more he should make a bid.

                       With respect to bid level:
                       If the "double" is of a 2-level contract, spoiler will use UNMODIFIED
                       LEBENSOHL RESPONSES. Otherwise, over 1-level bids the following is used:

                       [1] Wuth 10+ points & no 5+ card suit, spoiler should cue-bid in opponent's suit.
                           But with a 5+ card suit, spoiler should jump in his suit.

                       [2] With under 10 points, if spoiler is forced to bid, he should do so without jumping.

                       [3] LITTLE BIG FOOT (optional).
                           A non-jump, non-cued response is weak showing only 0-9 points. But 0-9 points is a big
                           spread. Therefore, this helps to break up a weak response into 0-5 points as opposed to
                           6-9 points. If spoiler bids the next suit up, then he is weak. Any suit above that
                           without jumping is 6-9 points.
                          

             4] SPOILER RESPONSIVE-DOUBLES/REDOUBLES:
                  When spoiler's right hand opponent bids, then spoiler can "double" or "redouble".
                  Typically, the meaning is that spoiler has some points and an unbid 4card major.
                  So it is very similar to the responder's negative double. Sometimes, contender
                  will give a Take-Out Double, the opponent will bid, and spoiler will "double"
                  to confirm 4-card support for contender's presumed suit. Whether or not this
                  a good practice remains to be seen.

             5] LIGHT 1NT overcall of 13-15 points with no unbid 4-card major.
                  The intent of this bid is to avoid making an OFF-SHAPE TAKE-OUT DOUBLE.
                  When sitting behind the strong opponent hand, there is an added advantage
                  to be capitalized on.

             6] MICHAELS IMMEDIATE FORCING CUE BID: (6-11 pts)
                  The contender has a 2-suited hand in the highest ranking unbid suits.
                       If the bid is passed by opponents, spoiler must bid one of the two suits.

             7] HAMILTON ovecall to a 1NT Opening.
                  2C says contender has just one long suit.
                       If the bid is passed by opponents, spoiler must bid 2D to let contender bid his suit.
                  2D says contender has both majors.
                       If the bid is passed by opponents, spoiler must bid one of the two suits.
                  2H says contender has hearts & a minor.
                  2S says contender has spades & a minor.
                  2NT says contender has both minors.

                  If the bid is passed by opponents, spoiler must bid one of the two suits.

             7] DONT ovecall to a 1NT Opening.
                  What ever suit is bid at the 2-level, contender has that suit and one higher.

             8] UNUSUAL 2NT FORCING. (Must be 5-5, not 5-4 ) ( 6-11) (6-6 bid 4NT)
                  The contender is 2-suited in either the minors or the 2 two lowest unbid suits.
                      If the bid is passed by opponents, spoiler must bid one of the two suits.
            


     C-4. UNIVERSAL COUNTER MEASURES:

         a. EXPANDED LEBENSOHL.





         b. COMPETITIVE BIDDING, SACRFICES & PENALTY DOUBLES.
                  The idea behind competitive bidding is to force the opponent's to the next
                  bid level over a reasonable bid you make that should yield a cheaper score
                  than if you left their last bid in. THE PRESUMPTION IS THAT THEY WILL MAKE
                  THEIR CONTRACT AT THEIR LAST BID. That presumption can be based upon
                  POINTS only when their bid is no-trump. Example: 2NT without 23-24 points will
                  probably not make. But the QUALITY OF THEIR POINTS is important. Have they
                  ACES & KINGS?

                  SHAPE is another big consideration, even against a no-trump contract.
                  Against no trump the question must include "Do they have a long
                  runnable suit that enables them to make their bid?". Against the a suit
                  contract, the question must include "Do they have a 5-4 fit with mismatched
                  side suites?".

                  SEATING POSITION is another big factor to consider. Is the defensive strong
                  hand behind or in fornt of the opponents' strong hand?

                  Finally, RELATIVE VULNERABILITY is a major consideration. Is the vulnerability
                  favorable, unfavorable, or equal?

                  With all these things to consider, it behooves the potential sacrificer to
                  be extremely careful.

                      1] SOME OLD GUIDELINES:
                          a] "1 nd 3, let it be. But it will never do to let them be in 2".
                               Do not chase them into a game or slam contract.
                          b] "Do not double them for penalties into a game contract".
                               Doubles for penalty of 2H or 2S are especially troubling.
                               Doubles of 3-level contracts must be COOPERATIVE FOR PENALTY.
                               DO NOT lose sight of the fact that every overtrick they make doubled
                               & not vul is worth 100 points, where doubled & vul is worth 200 points
                               against you.
                               DO NOT lose sight of the fact that down 2 doubled & not vul is worth
                               300 points, & where down 1 doubled & vul is 200 points against you.
                          c] Make your sacrifice or penalty COOPERATIVE. Dont cut your partner out.
                               If your partner still has a bid, then give him a chance to decide.
                          d] "In responding to a take-out double, the weaker your hand,
                               the more you must bid".
                          e] "If you like the double, don't redouble".

                      2] RELATIVE VULNERABILITY & GAME LEVEL SACRIFICES:
                          GAME SACRIFICES are more reasonable than PARTIAL sacrifices, because the
                          opponents stand to gain 300 bonus points not vul & 500 bonus points vul.
                          When played against the scores for penalty contracts going down, it is
                          possible to effectively deny the opponents those bonus points by bidding
                          a contract you expect to go down in & doubled by the opponents. The
                          question becomes one of how much you can afford to go down doubled.
                          And RELATIVE VULNERABILITY plays a big role in identifying the answer.
                          As a general guide-line, if the vulnerability is favorable, then you can
                          afford to go down 3. If the vulnerability is unfavorable, then you can
                          only afford to go down 1. If equal, you can go down 2. Without making this
                          distinction in vulnerability, people usually take the average of down 2.
                          But I believe the really good experts will consider the relative vulnerability.

                      3] RELATIVE VULNERABILITY & PARTIAL LEVEL SCARIFICES:
                          As with game sacrifices, partial sacrifices require the same logic. Only
                          the bonus to be denied opponents is a mere 50 points. So trying to sacrifice
                          based upon bonus point denial alone is a futile effort. However, a 3-level
                          sacfice over a 2-level bid expecting to go down no more than 1 doubled &
                          not vul is a reasonable sacrifice. Hence the saying, "1 & 3 let it be...".
                          But a DOUBLE FOR PENALTY of a 2-level bid is PURE FOLLY, said double
                          being better utililized for conveying information to partner.

                      4] Is Partner SACRIFICING, COMPETING, OR INTERESTED IN GAME?
                          When a suit agreement has been reached at the 2-level and then when partner
                          rebids it at the 3-level, more than likely he is not interested in game.
                          If he is interested in game, he will give a MAXIMAL DOUBLE.

                      5] SOS REDOUBLES:
                          You have a wild partner who has fallen in love with their hand and can't
                          stop bidding. They wind up in a high level bid doubled, & you dont like it.
                          SOS REDOUBLE tells partner to pick another bid.

         c] COUNTER-MEASURES TO SUIT OPENING INTERFERENCE:

                  [1] NEW SUIT SIMPLE BIDS BELOW THE 3-LEVEL:
                      If responder has no good support for opener, but has a 5+ card suit of his
                      own with 10+ points, he can simple bid it which is forcing.
                      With ony 6+ points, responder can bit it at the 1-level. But to bid it
                      the 2-level requires 10+ points.

                  [2] Responder REDOUBLE of opponent's TAKE-OUT DOUBLE:
                      The TAKE-OUT DOUBLE provides the opportunity to REDOUBLE.
                      To do so requires 10+ points & no fit with partner's suit.

                  [3] Responder NEGATIVE DOUBLE of opponent's suit bid:
                      When the opponent intervenes with a SIMPLE OVERCALL OR WEAK JUMP
                      OVERCALL, then a new bid is afforded the responder, ie,
                      the RESPONDER'S NEGATIVE DOUBLE. The Negative Double is forcing.
                      Because the Negative Double is forcing, responder must not force
                      his partner to the 2-level unless he has 10+ points.
                      Examples: 1S -> 2C -> DOUBLE says responder has 4 hearts & 10+ points.
                                       1H -> 2C -> DOUBLE says responder has 4-5 spades & 10+ points.

                      Responder's Negative Double of a 1-level overcall should say he has
                      at least 6 points & probably an unbid 4-card major.
                      Examples: 1C -> 1H -> DOUBLE says responder has 4 spades & 6+ points.
                      But with an unbid 5+ card major & no other 4-card major, responder
                      will simply bid it at the 1-level if he can.
                      Examples: 1C -> 1H -> 1S says responder has 5+ spades & 6+ points.
                      With only 6 points & 5 spades & 4 hearts, if the bidding goes 1D/1C,
                      then responder should "DOUBLE", because he cant bid 2H at the 2-level.
                      If both majors have already been bid, as in 1S/1H,
                      then the Negative Double says responder has both minor suits.
                      1H -> 1S -> DOUBLE says responder has both unbid minors & 6+ points.
                      1S -> 2H -> DOUBLE says you have both unbid minors & 10+ points.

                  [4] 2NT LEBENSOHL RELAY COUNTER-MEASURES:
                      (Does not apply to minor suit openings)

                      LEBENSOHL is a bid of 2NT which forces opener to bid 3C.Where the bid
                      has been used in countering 1NT interference & Weak-2 openers, I have found
                      it to be extremely useful in a variety of other situations, including countering
                      an intervening opponent's bid over partner's suit opening at the 1-level.

                      a] LEBENSOHL MINOR SUIT JUMP-SHIFTS:
                          When responder has a long minor suit with minimum points & no
                          support for opener, a very useful preemptive bid is the LEBENSOHL
                          2NT RELAY which forces opener to bid 3C. Responder can then "pass"
                          if he has clubs, or he could bid 3D to which opener would "pass"
                          In either case, responder should have a 6+ card suit with 7-9 points.

                      2} LEBENSOHL 3-CARD SUPPORT LIMIT RAISES:
                          But suppose opener bid a major & opponent has stuck in a 2-level bid.
                          Meanwhile responder has a 3-card Limit Raise. How can he make
                          a temporizing bid if the opponent has shut him out? The answer is
                          to bid 2NT to relay opener to 3C & then bid opner's suit.
                          EXAMPLE: 1S -> 2H -> 2NT -> P -> 3C -> P -> 3S
                          Now many today will argue, "just bid a 3H cue bid" or "just bid 3S".
                          To this I say "Wasted bidding space". Besides, there is a better
                          use for the cue bid called WESTERN CUE.

                      So the LEBENSOHL relay to 3C is a portal to many other bids.

                  [5] Responder WESTERN CUE BID.
                      A CUE BID in opponent's suit is FORCING & shows 10+ points.
                      Given that responder can show a 3-Card Limit Raise using a
                      LEBENSOHL response, there is no need for a cue bid in opponent's
                      suit to be a 3-card limit raise. It can mean something
                      else. The best use of it would be a WESTERN CUE which asks
                      opener to bid NO-TRUMP if he has a control in opponent's suit.

                  [6] RAISING OPENER'S SUIT:
                      (Does not apply to minor suit openings)

                      [a] RESPONDER SIMPLE RAISE:
                          With 6-9 points and 3 card support, responder can raise opener's suit to
                          the 2-level if possible.

                      [b] Responder's SIMPLE CUE BID in the opponent's suit is FORCING.
                          No matter the exact meaning, the CUE BID means responder does
                          not have that suit. A bid in the opponent's suit at the next level up
                          sounds very hazardous, but in fact it is a very useful tool in
                          raising opener's suit as a 3-card limit raise or requesting
                          partner to bid No-Trump if he has a protected stopper in that
                          suit, aka, WESTERN CUE. So how should you dustinguish between
                          the two? Many just throw WESTERN-CUE out the window & call
                          it a LIMIT-RAISE. But I have found that the LEBENSOHL 2NT RELAY
                          is very useful to describe a LIMIT RAISE, leaving the door opened
                          for the CUE-BID to be WESTERN-CUE.
                          EXAMPLE: 1S -> 2H -> 2NT RELAY TO 3C -> P -> 3C -> P -> 3H

                      [c] Responder BERGEN RAISES are a great defense against interference.
                          They very resistant to almost anything the opponent bids. With
                          BERGEN RAISES & LEBENSOHL, any overcall not exceeding the 2-level
                          will not get in your way of supporting partner immediately or
                          bidding a Weak-Jump Minor Suit Shift at the 3-level.

                  [7] Verses the opponent's 3-level Weak Jump Overcall, there is very little
                      left to counter the obstruction. It should be noted that a 2-level
                      Weak Jump Overcall can still be countered using Bergen & Lebensohl.
                      But a 3C/1D,1H,1S or 3D/1H,1S or 3H/1S Weak Jump Overcall is
                      impossible to counter via Bergen or Lebensohl or a 4-level cue bid.
                      Responder is left with only the basic tools. Any new suit response
                      should contain 10+ points & not exceed partner's suit unless
                      responder has 13+ points. 3NT would have to promise a protected
                      control in opponent's suit. And A Negative Double would normally
                      show 10+ points with holdings in the other unbid suits.

                      An optional use of the Negative Double might be to use
                      it in support of opener's suit when the intervening bid
                      is at the 3-level. Consider the situation when partner
                      opens 1S & opponent overcalls 3H. If you have 10 points
                      with 4+ spades & you bid 3S, opener with 15 points might
                      "pass" you, thereby missing a game. So the use of a double
                      might come in handy here. Normally a "double" would indicate
                      having 10+ points with holding in the minor suits. Opener
                      would be required to bid 3S or a 4-level minor, depending on
                      points, after which you would either "pass" 3S or correct to 4S.
                      MAXIMAL DOUBLES are usually issued by opener after responder
                      has given a simple raise of his suit & opponents intervene.
                      But this might be considered a RESPONDER MAXIMAL DOUBLE.

                  [8] COUNTERING MICHAELS & UNUSUAL NT OVERCALLS;
                      These opponent bids are at the 2-level, 2-suited & very specific regarding
                      their suits. Since the bid is forcing upon the spoiler, responder might
                      do well to first "pass" to gleen any information about the opponent's
                      hand before proceeding to bid on.
                          [a] MICHAELS is a cue bid in the opener's suit at the 2-level normally
                               indicating a 2-suited hand in the highest ranking unbid suits.
                               But there are those who play a CUE BID different from normal MICHAELS.
                               So always ask the opponents what their CUE BID means.
                               In countering MICHAELS, the counter measures described for
                               1-suited overcalls can be employed.
                          [b] The UNUSUAL 2NT overcall shows either 2-suited in the minors or
                               2-suited in the lowest unbid. Because the UNUSUAL 2NT overcall gets
                               in the way of the LEBENSOHL countermeasure, a responder "DOUBLE" of
                               2NT should be s stolen suit bid prompting opener to bid 3C.
                          If you bid a suit explicitly targeted by the contender,
                          then your bid is a CUE BID, possibly being WESTERN CUE.
                          Example: 1S -> 2NT -> 3D asks for a diamond stopper to bid 3NT.
                          1H -> 2H -> 2S asks for a spade stopper to bid 2NT.
                          If you NEGATIVE DOUBLE the opponent's bid, then you should have the other
                          untargeted suits with questionable support for opener.

         d] COUNTER-MEASURES TO NT INTERFERENCE:

                  The first thing for the partner's to do is ascertain the meaning of the
                  interference, especially the suit overcalls for which there is a vast variety
                  of meanings. The basic question is "IS THE OVERCALL NATURAL OR 2-SUITED?".
                  If it is natural, then your "DOUBLE" will be a STOLEN-SUIT DOUBLE, meaning
                  that it is the suit you would have bid & more than likely as a simple transfer.
                  But if opponent's bid is 2-suited, then your "DOUBLE" may become a stopper
                  in what would otherwise be a suit to transfer to.

                  [1] STOLEN SUIT DOUBLES over natural interfernce say responder would have
                      bid what opponent had bid.

                  [2] NEGATIVE DOUBLES over 2-suited system interference show the unindicated suits.


         e] COUNTERNG WEAK OPENING PREEMPTS WITH LEBENSOHL.
            


     C-5. ACE ASKING COMVENTIONS:

         a. REJECTED MINOR (4C OR 4D) ACE ASKING (aka MINOR-WOOD).
             These are 4C or 4D ace asking bids using the least desirable minor suit.
             This makes it possible to keep the bidding lower while targeting slam
             in a No-Trump or any suit, especially a minor suit.
             How would you ask for kings in targeting a 7C contract using 4N BalckWood?
             There is no reason not to use 4C or 4D in asking for aces, whuch ever             
             is the least desirable by the CAPTAIN and even in pursuing a suit contract.
             Only the captain should ask for aces. The purpose is to keep the bidding low.
             Partnership may agree upon any convention to show ace count.
             Example: 1NT - 4D (ace asking not liking diamonds) - 4S (1 ace) - 5C (sign off)

            


     C-6. USELESS CONVENTIONS:

         a. A 15-17 point 1NT opening, a 20-21 point 2NT opening, & a 18-19 point balanced hand 1C opening
             followed by a 2NT "SLIVER" bid which destroys the use of SYSTEMS is complete nonsense, due
             to unnecessary bickering over 1 point. Return to the original Goren System.
         b. JACOBY 2NT with 13-15 points. Who made you captain? You should have 16+ high card points.
             Use ACOL GAME LIMIT RAISE. Let opener decide whether slam is possible.
         c. OPENING 4-CARD MAJORS. I guess you just like consuming bidding room before finding a fit.
         d. PUPPET STAYMAN over 1NT. Hey, just open your 5-card major as usual then jump to 2NT.
         e. FLANERY. Why are you taking up so much bidding room just to avoid a reverse?
             What's the metter? You afraid to play 1NT if partner has no fit?
         f. 19-21 point JUMP SHIFTS and/or REVERSES. With 19-24 point 2C opening, no need.
         g. 2D WAITING response to 2C opening. "Car 54 where are you". "Hellooo".
         h. JORDAN. If you play BERGEN over interference, you don't need JORDAN.
         i. GAME RAISE PREEMPTS. So if you play BERGEN, Why do you nedd another preempt?
         j. CONVENIENT MINOR & 4-card 1D openings. If you play 5-card openings, you will have better
             protection when partner is bust.
         k. SPIRAL
         l. CRISS-CROSS

         These conventions are considered to be unnecessary, confusing & consuming of
         bid space that can be better utilized.



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